Casting is a manufacturing process in which metal in its molten or liquid form is used to produce different components of intricate designs. For that molten metal is poured in specifically designed cavities to achieve the desired pattern of a component. After solidifying when metal is hardened and takes shape of the component that is to be produced it is removed from mold or cast. There are different methods of casting. Some methods are pretty much conventional, those are being used for years and there are some special casting methods that are being used these days to produce more sophisticated and intricate components. The present days special casting methods that have evolved with time are not only capable of producing intricate shapes they are also economically viable and time-saving in many ways.
Let us discuss some of the most common casting and special casting methods.
- Sand Casting – In sand casting the silica basedmoulds are used. The materials used for making these moulds are either made with naturally bonded sand or they are synthetically bonded. Silica based moulds have smoother surface and they are less susceptible to cracking or shrinking during the cooling process. These forms of casting is economical and can be used for producing large sized components.
- Investment Casting– In investment casting wax is used for moulding purpose and the wax that is used has to be discarded with each produced unit. This method of casting is very useful when intricately designed parts are to be produced. Wax is beneficial for making thin walled patterns with complex geometric designs.
- Plaster Casting – The basic principles of plaster casting is same as sand casting method. In this form of casting gypsum is used as the main ingredient for making the cast along anti adhesive materials and water. This casting method ensures smoother finish even in complex designs.
- Die Casting–Die casting is possibly the most used and the oldest method of casting. In this metal casting procedure non ferrous metals and alloys are used to make the mould. The biggest advantage of die casting is that mould can be reused for casting and it requires no additional finish after it is done.
- Centrifugal Casting – As the name suggests this casting method is used to produce components of cylindrical shape like metal pipes.
- Permanent Mould Casting – This type of casting is similar to die casting where the mould is permanent and it is often reused for casting. Generally,moulds are made up of metal or graphite and these moulds are used for casting different types of metals and alloys.